Artificial Intelligence: What Everyone Needs to Know by Jerry Kaplan PDF
By Jerry Kaplan
Over the arrival a long time, man made Intelligence will profoundly influence the best way we are living, paintings, salary struggle, play, search a mate, train our younger, and deal with our aged. it truly is more likely to significantly elevate our combination wealth, however it also will upend our exertions markets, reshuffle our social order, and pressure our inner most and public associations. ultimately it could possibly regulate how we see our position within the universe, as machines pursue ambitions self sufficient in their creators and outperform us in domain names formerly believed to be the only dominion of people. no matter if we regard them as awake or unwitting, revere them as a brand new type of existence or brush aside them as mere shrewdpermanent home equipment, is irrelevant. they're more likely to play an more and more severe and intimate position in lots of features of our lives.
The emergence of platforms able to self sustaining reasoning and motion increases critical questions about simply whose pursuits they're authorised to serve, and what limits our society should still position on their construction and use. Deep moral questions that experience bedeviled philosophers for a while will unexpectedly arrive at the steps of our courthouses. Can a laptop be held chargeable for its activities? may still clever structures take pleasure in self sufficient rights and tasks, or are they uncomplicated estate? Who will be held accountable whilst a self-driving motor vehicle kills a pedestrian? Can your individual robotic carry your house in line, or be forced to testify opposed to you? If it seems to be attainable to add your brain right into a desktop, is that also you? The solutions could shock you.
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The Dartmouth proposal covered a surprisingly broad range of topics, including neuron nets, a precursor of some of today’s most powerful AI techniques, and the processing of human language by computer, both of which I will describe shortly. Some of the more interesting statements in the proposal illustrate the mindset of the participants. For instance, it’s clear that McCarthy believed that a computer could simulate many or all advanced human cognitive functions. … A fairly attractive and yet clearly incomplete conjecture is that the difference between creative thinking and unimaginative competent thinking lies in the injection of some randomness.
For reasons I will explain, the field is no longer an active area of research, at least in its original form. ” You might wonder why any program that performs a sufficiently sophisticated task is not considered an expert system, or at least wasn’t back when 23 The Intellectual History of Artificial Intelligence 23 the term was popularized. The main difference is in how the expertise is represented. In contrast to the procedural method of computer programming common at the time (and still today), where a problem is broken down into a series of sequential steps, expert systems instead employed a different approach, a natural application of the symbolic systems concept.
Representing this problem in symbolic terms may be possible, but imagine trying to interview a human expert in an effort to build an expert system to do this. There certainly are experts at riding bikes, but the nature of their expertise simply doesn’t lend itself to description in words. Clearly, knowledge and expertise can take forms that resist codification into human language or any explicitly symbolic form. 37 The Intellectual History of Artificial Intelligence 37 By contrast, using machine learning techniques, this problem is a ride in the park, so to speak.
Artificial Intelligence: What Everyone Needs to Know by Jerry Kaplan