New PDF release: Arctic Oceanography: Marginal Ice Zones and Continental

Oceanography

By Walker O. Smith Jr., Jacqueline M. Grebmeier

ISBN-10: 0875902634

ISBN-13: 9780875902630

Published via the yankee Geophysical Union as a part of the Coastal and Estuarine experiences, quantity 49.

The Arctic Ocean is the least understood ocean on the earth, and but its significance to the world's oceans and weather is enormous. for instance, it's been urged that the Arctic is the area probably to be stricken by elevated atmospheric temperatures which would ensue because of anthropogenic releases of greenhouse gases. It additionally performs a serious position in worldwide oceanic circulate, in that it modulates the formation of deep water within the North Atlantic through ice export. regardless of its pivotal function in international strategies, the Arctic continues to be poorly understood. This quantity is an try and spotlight and synthesize a number of the fresh advances in our wisdom of Arctic oceanography and contains subject matters that may curiosity actual, organic, chemical, and geological oceanographers in addition to atmospheric scientists.

That the Arctic is so poorly recognized relative to different oceans isn't a surprise. it's mostly ice-covered all year long, with just some of its continental cabinets changing into ice?]free in summer season. Its ice is usually multi?]year and intensely thick, making penetration into the deeper parts very unlikely other than through the main robust ice?]breakers. although, in recent times new applied sciences were utilized to the Arctic, and our realizing of the actual, chemical, organic and geological strategies which take place inside it really is quickly expanding. satellite tv for pc sensors become aware of the Arctic always, permitting us to keep on with ice move, storms, and openings within the pack ice that had by no means been saw formerly. Moorings, ships and buoys now can face up to a number of the rigors of the Arctic, and observations of the water column and seabed have gotten extra universal. eventually, due to its value to international methods, reports of the Arctic are attracting scientists not just from Arctic countries yet from international locations world wide. Arctic oceanography really has turn into a global effort.

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Extra info for Arctic Oceanography: Marginal Ice Zones and Continental Shelves

Sample text

18 . 0 PigmentConcentration {mg/m3) Figure12. , 1991]in the ArcticfromNovember1978throughJune Comiso 31 board the JERS-1 satellite, which has several channels at a resolution of 12 m and has a 3- D imagingcapability. High resolutionoptical and photographicimagesof the Arctic are noted for showing remarkablydetailedfeaturesof ice floes,ridges,leads,andnew ice. , 1993] andin areaswherethe microwave sensorshaveproblemswith ice classification,the visiblechannelsmay be able to provide the critical information.

Thesetof images establishes thattheeffectcannot be dueto divergence or a change in iceconcentration. Again,this information provides ameans tobetter interpret theSSM/Iimages. Watervaporandwind speedmapsfor summerandwinterin theArcticopenoceanregion (Courtesyof FrankWentz). pixelsmayactuallyrepresent a mixtureof differentsurfaces. Eachdataelementmeasuredby thepassivesensoris solargethat sometimesit is not possibleto interpretthe dataaccuratelybecausethereare too manytypesof surfacewithin eachpixel.

The additionalinformationcanthusbe usedto adjustreferenceparameters in the passive microwavealgorithmto obtainbetterice concentration values. , 1991]. The valueof combiningthe two data setsis illustratedin Figure 16. Color-coded SSM/I brightnesstemperaturedataat 19 GHz (verticalpolarization)for June11 and 20, 1992,are shownin Figure 16a and 16b,respectively. On June20, thesameregionhasmuchhigherbrightness temperature. Figure 16cshowsSAR imagesfor the corresponding daysincluding thatfor June14 to betterillustratethetemporalevolutionof thebackscatter.

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Arctic Oceanography: Marginal Ice Zones and Continental Shelves by Walker O. Smith Jr., Jacqueline M. Grebmeier


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