Download PDF by Benjamin A. Elman: A Cultural History of Modern Science in China
By Benjamin A. Elman
Historians of technology and Sinologists have lengthy wanted a unified narrative to explain the chinese language improvement of contemporary technological know-how, drugs, and know-how considering 1600. They welcomed the looks in 2005 of Benjamin Elman's masterwork, all alone phrases. Now Elman has retold the tale of the Jesuit effect on past due imperial China, circa 1600-1800, and the Protestant period in early smooth China from the 1840s to 1900 in a concise and available shape perfect for the study room. This coherent account of the emergence of recent technology in China locations that emergence in old context for either basic scholars of contemporary technological know-how and experts of China. (20070112)
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The reform, however, opened the door for leaders of the Ming and Qing dynasties to accept Jesuits as calendrical experts, just as earlier rulers had accepted Indian, Persian, and Muslim specialists. To gain support for the missionary enterprise, Ricci decided to present the Jesuits in China as specialists in mathematical astronomy. This plan was worked out in advance with Xu Guangqi (1562–1633) and Li Zhizao (1565– 1630), then high officials in the Ming government. 9 Reformers presented a Sino-Jesuit calendrical system in stages between 1631 and 1635, but the final steps of implementation failed, in part due to Xu’s death in 1633 and the fall of the Ming dynasty in 1644.
This post– Rites Controversy policy ensured that the Jesuits would not excessively influence court mathematics. 4 Li Guangdi (1642–1718), a leading patron of native specialists on mathematical astronomy in the Kangxi court, also avoided rely- 38 A CULTURAL HISTORY OF MODERN SCIENCE IN CHINA ing on the Jesuits. 5 The emperor recruited more than one hundred scholars— regardless of their civil examination status—to join the Academy of Mathematics. In addition to those in the academy who studied mathematics, astronomy, and music, a large number of instrument makers were hired for the technical needs of the new academy.
Southern Ming naval forces then challenged the Dutch garrison in northern Taiwan (called “Formosa” by Europeans) at Castle Zeelandia in April 1661 with a force of six hundred ships and twenty-five thousand sailors. The Dutch capitulated after a nine-month siege. 20 For its part, the Qing government in 1662 ordered all Chinese coastal inhabitants to move inland to cut Zheng’s supply lines and to negate the value of the coast as a battleground. Earlier, Manchu military forces had captured Ming cannons, which they had used to pound walled Chinese cities into submission while reorganizing their Chinese and Manchu bannermen into artillery units.
A Cultural History of Modern Science in China by Benjamin A. Elman